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Solar panels absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic...

Solar panels absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panel structure pdf modules, an inverter, a battery pack for storage, interconnection wiring, and optionally a solar tracking mechanism.


The most common application of solar panels is solar water heating systems. Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. Cells must also be protected from mechanical damage and moisture.

Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-film cells. The cells must be connected electrically in series, one to another. Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors type to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system.

Modules electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals.

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