SPSS Statistics is a software package used for logical batched and non-batched statistical analysis. Long produced by SPSS Inc. SPSS is a widely used program for statistical analysis in social science. It is also used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education python social media analytics pdf, marketing organizations, data miners, and others.
The many features of SPSS Statistics are accessible via pull-down menus or can be programmed with a proprietary 4GL command syntax language. Command syntax programming has the benefits of reproducible output, simplifying repetitive tasks, and handling complex data manipulations and analyses.
Additionally, some complex applications can only be programmed in syntax and are not accessible through the menu structure. The pull-down menu interface also generates command syntax: this can be displayed in the output, although the default settings have to be changed to make the syntax visible to the user. They can also be pasted into a syntax file using the “paste” button present in each menu. Programs can be run interactively or unattended, using the supplied Production Job Facility.
Additionally a “macro” language can be used to write command language subroutines. A Python programmability extension can access the information in the data dictionary and data and dynamically build command syntax programs.
In addition, the Python extension allows SPSS to run any of the statistics in the free software package R. From version 14 onwards, SPSS can be driven externally by a Python or a VB.
NET program using supplied “plug-ins”. From Version 20 onwards, these two scripting facilities, as well as many scripts, are included on the installation media and are normally installed by default. SPSS Statistics places constraints on internal file structure, data types, data processing, and matching files, which together considerably simplify programming.
Files can be matched one-to-one and one-to-many, but not many-to-many. In addition to that cases-by-variables structure and processing, there is a separate Matrix session where one can process data as matrices using matrix and linear algebra operations. The graphical user interface has two views which can be toggled by clicking on one of the two tabs in the bottom left of the SPSS Statistics window.