This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. A calculation is a deliberate process calculation book pdf that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change.
The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people. For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Scholes model is a more complex algorithmic calculation.
Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers. To calculate means to ascertain by computing. The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.
Calculate comes from the Greek word Κάχληκα or gravel in English because Greeks used gravel for counting. Calculation is a prerequisite for computation.
Find free statistics and mathematics books in this category. Are you looking for a specific subject?
Try one of the subcategories, for example: Calculus, Algebra or Complex functions. In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by computer scientists. This ebook makes learning “complex” numbers easy through an interactive, fun and personalized approach.
The present book describes the state-of-art in the middle of the 20th century, concerning first order differential equations of known solution formulæ. This book is an introduction to basic mathematics and is intended for students who need to reach the minimum level of mathematics required for their sciences, engineering and business studies.
If you know nothing you get a basic knowledge, if you know some statistical methods you get a better understanding of the ideas behind them. This edition of the textbook not only provides an in-depth introduction to the field of business research for students, it also aims to prepare readers for practical careers as research consultants. This book is written for engineers and students and covers a range of mathematics from school to university. The first chapter is a summary so students can quickly see where further study is needed.