Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry, biology, and physics. It involves the application of chemical techniques, tools, and analysis, and often compounds organic structure analysis crews pdf free download through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems.
Chemical biologists attempt to use chemical principles to modulate systems to either investigate the underlying biology or create new function. Research done by chemical biologists is often closer related to that of cell biology than biochemistry. Biochemists study the chemistry of biomolecules and regulation of biochemical pathways within cells and tissues, e.
AMP or cGMP, while chemical biologists deal with novel chemical compounds applied to biology. Some forms of chemical biology attempt to answer biological questions by directly probing living systems at the chemical level.
In contrast to research using biochemistry, genetics, or molecular biology, where mutagenesis can provide a new version of the organism or cell of interest, chemical biology studies probe systems in vitro and in vivo with small molecules that have been designed for a specific purpose or identified on the basis of biochemical or cell-based screening. Chemical biology is one of many interfacial sciences that are characteristic of a general trend away from older, reductionist fields toward those whose goals are to achieve a description of scientific holism. In this sense, it is related to other fields such as proteomics.
Proteomics investigates the proteome, the set of expressed proteins at a given time under defined conditions. As a discipline, proteomics has moved past rapid protein identification and has developed into a biological assay for quantitative analysis of complex protein samples by comparing protein changes in differently perturbed systems.
Current goals in proteomics include determining protein sequences, abundance and any post-translational modifications. Another important aspect of proteomics is the advancement of technology to achieve these goals.
Protein levels, modifications, locations, and interactions are complex and dynamic properties. With this complexity in mind, experiments need to be carefully designed to answer specific questions especially in the face of the massive amounts of data that are generated by these analyses. The most valuable information comes from proteins that are expressed differently in a system being studied. These proteins can be compared relative to each other using quantitative proteomics, which allows a protein to be labeled with a mass tag.
Proteomic technologies must be sensitive and robust, it is for these reasons, the mass spectrometer has been the workhorse of protein analysis. The high precision of mass spectrometry can distinguish between closely related species and species of interest can be isolated and fragmented within the instrument. Its applications to protein analysis was only possible in the late 1980s with the development of protein and peptide ionization with minimal fragmentation.
These breakthroughs were ESI and MALDI. Mass spectrometry technologies are modular and can be chosen or optimized to the system of interest.