The Monument to Multiculturalism multiculturalism without culture pdf Francesco Perilli in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Sarajevo, Bosnia and Sydney, Australia.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use. In sociology and everyday usage, it is a synonym for “pluralism” with the two terms often used interchangeably, for example a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities. It can describe a mixed ethnic community area where multiple cultural traditions exist, or a single country within which they do.
Groups associated with an aboriginal ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups are often the focus. On a large scale, it can occur as a result of either legal or illegal immigration to and from different jurisdictions around the world. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves ideologies and policies which vary widely, ranging from the advocacy of equal respect to the various cultures in a society, to policies of promoting the maintenance of cultural diversity, to policies in which people of various ethnic and religious groups are addressed by the authorities as defined by the group to which they belong. Multiculturalism that promotes maintaining the distinctiveness of multiple cultures is often contrasted to other settlement policies such as social integration, cultural assimilation and racial segregation.
Multiculturalism has been described as a “salad bowl” and “cultural mosaic”. Two different and seemingly inconsistent strategies have developed through different government policies and strategies.
The second centers on diversity and cultural uniqueness which can sometimes result in intercultural competition over jobs among other things and may lead to ethnic conflict. Controversy surrounding the issue of cultural isolation includes the ghettoization of a culture within a nation and the protection of the cultural attributes of an area or nation. Proponents of government policies often claim that artificial, government guided protections also contribute to global cultural diversity.
The second approach to multiculturalist policy making maintains that they avoid presenting any specific ethnic, religious, or cultural community values as central. In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to, or should, respond to cultural and religious differences.
It is often associated with “identity politics”, “the politics of difference”, and “the politics of recognition”. It is also a matter of economic interests and political power. In more recent times political multiculturalist ideologies have been expanding in their use to include and define disadvantaged groups such as African Americans, LGBT, with arguments often focussing on ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, indigenous peoples and even the disabled.
It is within this context which the term is most commonly understood and the broadness and scope of the definition, as well as its practical use, has been the subject of serious debate. Most debates over multiculturalism center around whether or not multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration. The arguments regarding the perceived rights to a multicultural education include the proposition that it acts as a way to demand recognition of aspects of a group’s culture osubordination and its entire experience.
Multiculturalism has been official policy in several Western nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are increasingly made of a mosaic of cultures. The Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is often referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism. In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today.