This article is about treatment of bacterial infection. They may microbiology by michael j pelczar pdf free download kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria.
A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th century. Together with vaccination, antibiotics have led to the near eradication of diseases such as tuberculosis in the developed world.
However, their effectiveness and easy access have also led to their overuse, prompting bacteria to develop resistance. Substances with antibiotic properties had been used for various purposes since ancient times.
Before the early 20th century, treatments for infections were based primarily on medicinal folklore. Mixtures with antimicrobial properties that were used in treatments of infections were described over 2000 years ago. Many ancient cultures, including the ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks, used specially selected mold and plant materials and extracts to treat infections. More recent observations made in the laboratory of antibiosis between microorganisms led to the discovery of natural antibacterials produced by microorganisms.
Louis Pasteur observed, “if we could intervene in the antagonism observed between some bacteria, it would offer perhaps the greatest hopes for therapeutics”. In 1874, physician Sir William Roberts noted that cultures of the mold Penicillium glaucum that is used in the making of some types of blue cheese did not display bacterial contamination. In 1876, physicist John Tyndall also contributed to this field.
Pasteur conducted research showing that Bacillus anthracis would not grow in the presence of the related mold Penicillium notatum. In 1895 Vincenzo Tiberio, Itallian physician, published a paper on the antibacterial power of some extracts of mold. In his thesis, Duchesne proposed that bacteria and molds engage in a perpetual battle for survival.
Penicillium glaucum when they were both grown in the same culture. He also observed that when he inoculated laboratory animals with lethal doses of typhoid bacilli together with Penicillium glaucum, the animals did not contract typhoid. Unfortunately Duchesne’s army service after getting his degree prevented him from doing any further research.