# Machine learning for beginners pdf

Machine learning for beginners pdf an alternative meaning, see variational Bayesian methods. In statistics and machine learning, ensemble methods use multiple learning algorithms to...

Machine learning for beginners pdf an alternative meaning, see variational Bayesian methods. In statistics and machine learning, ensemble methods use multiple learning algorithms to obtain better predictive performance than could be obtained from any of the constituent learning algorithms alone.

Unlike a statistical ensemble in statistical mechanics, which is usually infinite, a machine learning ensemble consists of only a concrete finite set of alternative models, but typically allows for much more flexible structure to exist among those alternatives. Supervised learning algorithms are most commonly described as performing the task of searching through a hypothesis space to find a suitable hypothesis that will make good predictions with a particular problem. Even if the hypothesis space contains hypotheses that are very well-suited for a particular problem, it may be very difficult to find a good one.

The term ensemble is usually reserved for methods that generate multiple hypotheses using the same base learner. The broader term of multiple classifier systems also covers hybridization of hypotheses that are not induced by the same base learner. Evaluating the prediction of an ensemble typically requires more computation than evaluating the prediction of a single model, so ensembles may be thought of as a way to compensate for poor learning algorithms by performing a lot of extra computation. By analogy, ensemble techniques have been used also in unsupervised learning scenarios, for example in consensus clustering or in anomaly detection.

An ensemble is itself a supervised learning algorithm, because it can be trained and then used to make predictions. The trained ensemble, therefore, represents a single hypothesis.

This hypothesis, however, is not necessarily contained within the hypothesis space of the models from which it is built. Thus, ensembles can be shown to have more flexibility in the functions they can represent. Empirically, ensembles tend to yield better results when there is a significant diversity among the models.

Many ensemble methods, therefore, seek to promote diversity among the models they combine. Using a variety of strong learning algorithms, however, has been shown to be more effective than using techniques that attempt to dumb-down the models in order to promote diversity.

While the number of component classifiers of an ensemble has a great impact on the accuracy of prediction, there is a limited number of studies addressing this problem. A priori determining of ensemble size and the volume and velocity of big data streams make this even more crucial for online ensemble classifiers.

Mostly statistical tests were used for determining the proper number of components. More recently, a theoretical framework suggested that there is an ideal number of component classifiers for an ensemble which having more or less than this number of classifiers would deteriorate the accuracy. It is called “the law of diminishing returns in ensemble construction.

Their theoretical framework shows that using the same number of independent component classifiers as class labels gives the highest accuracy. The Bayes Optimal Classifier is a classification technique. It is an ensemble of all the hypotheses in the hypothesis space. On average, no other ensemble can outperform it.