Accounting scandals are business scandals which arise from intentional manipulation of financial statements with the disclosure of financial misdeeds by trusted executives of corporations or governments. Such misdeeds typically involve complex methods for misusing or misdirecting funds, overstating revenues, international financial accounting and reporting connolly pdf expenses, overstating the value of corporate assets or underreporting the existence of liabilities.
It involves an employee, account or corporation itself and is misleading to investor and shareholders. Employees who commit accounting fraud at the request of their employers are subject to personal criminal prosecution. Misappropriation of assets, often called defalcation or employee fraud, occurs when an employee steals company’s asset, whether those assets are of monetary or physical nature. Typically, assets stolen are cash or cash equivalents and company data or intellectual property.
However, misappropriation of assets also includes taking inventory out of a facility or using company assets for personal purpose without authorization. Company assets include everything from office supplies, inventory to intellectual property.
Fraudulent financial reporting, also known as earnings management fraud. In this context, management intentionally manipulates accounting policies or accounting estimates to improve financial statements. Public and private corporations commit fraudulent financial reporting to secure investor interest or obtain bank approvals for financing, as justifications for bonuses or increased salaries or to meet expectations of shareholders.
The Securities and Exchange Commission has brought enforcement actions against corporations for many types of fraudulent financial reporting, including improper revenue recognition, period-end stuffing, fraudulent post-closing entries, improper asset valuations, and misleading non-GAAP financial measures. The fraud triangle is a model for explaining the factors that cause someone to commit fraudulent behaviors in accounting. Pressure: Management or other employees have incentives or pressures to commit fraud.