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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The hydraulic cylinders on this excavator operate the machine’s linkages. Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is typically oil.

The hydraulic cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. The piston has sliding rings and seals. Flanges, trunnions, clevises, and lugs are common cylinder mounting options. The piston rod also has mounting attachments to connect the cylinder to the object or machine component that it is pushing or pulling.

A hydraulic cylinder is the actuator or “motor” side of this system. The “generator” side of the hydraulic system is the hydraulic pump which delivers a fixed or regulated flow of oil to the hydraulic cylinder, to move the piston. The piston pushes the oil in the other chamber back to the reservoir. For double-acting single-rod cylinders, when the input and output pressures are reversed, there is a force difference between the two sides of the piston due to one side of the piston being covered by the rod attached to it.

The cylinder rod reduces the surface area of the piston and reduces the force that can be applied for the retraction stroke. P is the fluid pressure, Fp is the pulling force, Ap is the piston face area and Ar is the rod cross-section area. For double-acting, double-rod cylinders, when the piston surface area is equally covered by a rod of equal size on both sides of the head, there is no force difference.

Such cylinders typically have their cylinder body affixed to a stationary mount. The main function of the cylinder body is to hold cylinder pressure. The cylinder barrel is mostly made from a seamless tube. The piston reciprocates in the cylinder.

The main function of the cap is to enclose the pressure chamber at one end. The cap is connected to the body by means of welding, threading, bolts, or tie rod. Caps also perform as cylinder mounting components .

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