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An 1806 engraving of Jean-Jacques Dessalines. It depicts the general, sword raised in one arm, while the other holds the severed head of a...

An 1806 engraving of Jean-Jacques Dessalines. It depicts the general, sword raised in one arm, while the other holds the severed head of a white woman. Haiti by Haitian soldiers under orders from Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who had decreed that haitian constitution 1805 pdf suspected of conspiring in the acts of the expelled army should be put to death.

Throughout the nineteenth century, these events were well known in the United States, where they were called “the horrors of St. Domingo” and they polarized Southern public opinion on the question of the abolition of slavery. The massacre, which took place throughout Haiti, occurred from early January 1804 until 22 April 1804 and resulted in the deaths of 3,000 to 5,000 men, women, and children. Squads of soldiers moved from house to house, torturing and killing entire families.

Even whites who had been friendly and sympathetic to the black population were imprisoned and later killed. A second wave of massacres targeted white women and children. Have they not hung up men with heads downward, drowned them in sacks, crucified them on planks, buried them alive, crushed them in mortars? Have they not forced them to consume faeces?

And, having flayed them with the lash, have they not cast them alive to be devoured by worms, or onto anthills, or lashed them to stakes in the swamp to be devoured by mosquitoes? Have they not thrown them into boiling cauldrons of cane syrup?

Have they not put men and women inside barrels studded with spikes and rolled them down mountainsides into the abyss? Have they not consigned these miserable blacks to man eating-dogs until the latter, sated by human flesh, left the mangled victims to be finished off with bayonet and poniard? Burning of the Plaine du Cap – Massacre of whites by the blacks. On August 22, 1791, slaves set fire to plantations, torched cities and massacred the white population.

In 1791, a man of Jamaican origin named Boukman became the leader of the enslaved Africans held on a large plantation in Cap-Français. In the wake of the revolution in France, he planned to massacre all the whites living in Cap-Français. On 22 August 1791, the blacks descended to Le Cap, where they destroyed the plantations and executed all the whites who lived in the region. King Louis XVI was accused of indifference to the massacre, while the slaves seemed to think the king was on their side.

In July 1793, the whites in Les Cayes were massacred. Despite the French proclamation of emancipation, the blacks sided with the Spanish who came to occupy the region. In July 1794, Spanish forces stood by while the black troops of Jean-François massacred the French whites in Fort-Dauphin. After the defeat of France and the evacuation of the French army from the former French colony of Saint-Domingue, Dessalines came to power.