These areas are primarily under the control of the EU’s member states although a certain amount of structured co-operation and coordination takes place in these areas. For the EU to take substantial actions functions of european union pdf these areas, all Member States must give their consent. The principle of subsidiarity does not apply to areas of exclusive competence. The EU treaties declare the EU to be based on representative democracy, and direct elections take place to the European Parliament.
The Parliament, together with the Council, form the legislative arm of the EU. The Council is composed of national governments, thus representing the intergovernmental nature of the EU. Laws are proposed by the European Commission which is appointed by and accountable to the Parliament and Council although it has very few executive powers. Although direct elections take place every five years, there are no cohesive political parties in the national sense.
Instead, there are alliances of ideologically associated parties who sit and vote together in Parliament. EU which adopts successive reforming treaties. The functioning of the Union shall be founded on representative democracy. Citizens are directly represented at Union level in the European Parliament.