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Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions. A complex system is thereby characterised by its inter-dependencies, whereas a complicated system is characterised by its layers.
Complexity is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence greater than the sum of its parts. However, “a characterization of what is complex is possible”.
The study of these complex linkages at various scales is the main goal of complex systems theory. Ultimately Johnson adopts the definition of “complexity science” as “the study of the phenomena which emerge from a collection of interacting objects”.