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Chemical compounds that often trimerise are aliphatic isocyanates and cyanic acids. The trimerization cyclization reaction can be understood with this scheme.
In 1866, Marcellin Berthelot reported the first example of cyclotrimerization leading to aromatic products, the cyclization of acetylene to benzene. Symmetrical 1,3,5-triazines are prepared by trimerization of certain nitriles such as cyanogen chloride or cyanimide.
An industrial route to cyanuric acid entails the thermal decomposition of urea, with release of ammonia. The endothermic synthesis of melamine can be understood in two steps. Then in the second step, cyanic acid polymerizes to form cyanuric acid, which condenses with the liberated ammonia from the first step to release melamine and water. This water then reacts with cyanic acid present, which helps drive the trimerization reaction, generating carbon dioxide and ammonia.
1,3,5-Trithiane is the cyclic trimer of the otherwise unstable species thioformaldehyde. This heterocycle consists of a six-membered ring with alternating methylene bridges and thioether groups. It is prepared by treatment of formaldehyde with hydrogen sulfide.
Three molecules of acetaldehyde condense to form paraldehyde, a cyclic trimer containing C-O single bonds. Catalyzing and dehydrating by sulfuric acid, trimerization of acetone via aldol condensation affords mesitylene. Structure of the trimer 3. Klaus Huthmacher, Dieter Most “Cyanuric Acid and Cyanuric Chloride” Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry” 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Trithiane” Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 2, p. Structural Studies of Metal Complexes with Sulphur-Containing Bidentate Ligands. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trimers. This page was last edited on 7 November 2017, at 00:44.