Please forward this error divisional performance measurement pdf to 69. Please note that Internet Explorer version 8.
Please refer to this blog post for more information. In earlier studies, differences between diagnostic control and interactive control have been frequently addressed . In our paper, it is shown that strategic performance measurement systems can be used both diagnostically and interactively, but such systems have implications for beliefs control and boundary control as well.
Interactive use of performance measures is apt to improve the quality of strategic management and to increase commitment to strategic targets. On the other hand, interactive discussion of specific performance metrics increases the visibility of actions which may initiate resistance. In addition, interactive use of performance measures may be costly in terms of time consumption both when collecting the data and when discussing the results. Two major differences were found in the actual use of strategic performance measures when compared to the normative literature.
First, in contrast to ascertaining certain cause-and-effect relationships before implementing new measures, it was perceived that the measures themselves would be used over time to confirm or reject alleged relationships. Second, no tight connections between the new measurement system and managerial bonuses were made. This was mostly due to the development process, during which the top managers themselves developed the measures to reflect their belief about the best way of achieving the ultimate financial targets. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution.
A linear encoder is a sensor, transducer or readhead paired with a scale that encodes position. The encoder can be either incremental or absolute. Motion can be determined by change in position over time. Linear encoder technologies include optical, magnetic, inductive, capacitive and eddy current.
Optical technologies include shadow, self imaging and interferometric. Linear encoders are used in metrology instruments, motion systems and high precision machining tools ranging from digital calipers and coordinate measuring machines to stages, CNC Mills, manufacturing gantry tables and semiconductor steppers.
Moiré, diffraction or holographic principles. Optical encoders are the most accurate of the standard styles of encoders, and the most commonly used in industrial automation applications.
When specifying an optical encoder, it’s important that the encoder has extra protection built in to prevent contamination from dust, vibration and other conditions common to industrial environments. Typical incremental scale periods vary from hundreds of micrometers down to sub-micrometer.
Interpolation can provide resolutions as fine as a nanometre. Light sources used include infrared LEDs, visible LEDs, miniature light-bulbs and laser diodes.