16 April 2004 to enable designers across Europe to practice in any country that adopts the code. Concrete is a very strong and economical material design of reinforced concrete structures book pdf performs exceedingly well under compression. Its weakness lies in its capability to carry tension forces and thus has its limitations.
Combining these two materials means engineers would be able to work with a composite material that is capable of carrying both tension and compression forces. EN 1998: Eurocode 8 – Design of structures for earthquake resistance, when concrete structures are built in seismic regions. EN 1992-1-1 deals with the rules and concepts required for designing concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures. Pre-design: Before any other designing is undertaken, the limit states of durability and fire design are considered in order to ascertain the required cover to the reinforcement, the minimum size of members and the appropriate concrete strength.
The size of the reinforced concrete element and the quantity of reinforcement to resist bending, shear and torsional forces are determined. Although these initial estimates are likely to change throughout the design, giving considerable amount of thought at this stage is likely to save a lot of time later on. Ultimate limit states are often more critical for concrete structures.
Consequently, when design is undertaken, the ultimate limit state is designed for and then if necessary serviceability is checked for. However, element sizes ascertained in the pre-design stage usually ensure serviceability criteria are met.
Serviceability requirements to check for deflection and crack widths are generally satisfied by observing the following details. Providing not less than the minimum permitted percentage of reinforcement. Limiting the spacing of tension reinforcement.