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The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia” meaning knowledge. A practitioner of science is called a “scientist”. Modern science respects objective logical...

The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia” meaning knowledge. A practitioner of science is called a “scientist”. Modern science respects objective logical reasoning, and follows a set of core procedures or rules computer science course outline pdf order to determine the nature and underlying natural laws of the universe and everything in it. Some scientists do not know of the rules themselves, but follow them through research policies.


These procedures are known as the scientific method. It is based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning, both deductive and inductive.

For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.

Thus, natural experiments are observational studies and are not controlled in the traditional sense of a randomized experiment. Gather and analyze data from experiments or observations, including indicators of uncertainty.

Draw conclusions by comparing data with predictions. The hypothesis is falsified by the data.

Data are consistent with the hypothesis. Data are consistent with alternative hypotheses. Data are not relevant to the hypothesis, or data and predictions are incommensurate. There is too much uncertainty in the data to draw any conclusion.

According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. A test that could and does run contrary to predictions of the hypothesis is taken as a falsification of the hypothesis. A test that could but does not run contrary to the hypothesis corroborates the theory. In natural science, hypotheses must be verified scientifically to be regarded as scientific theory.

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