This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. It was developed by Robert Bosch GmbH during the late bosch map sensor pdf under the supervision of Dr.
The original sensing element is made with a thimble-shaped zirconia ceramic coated on both the exhaust and reference sides with a thin layer of platinum and comes in both heated and unheated forms. The planar-style sensor entered the market in 1990, and significantly reduced the mass of the ceramic sensing element as well as incorporating the heater within the ceramic structure. This resulted in a sensor that started sooner and responded faster.
Divers also use a similar device to measure the partial pressure of oxygen in their breathing gas. Scientists use oxygen sensors to measure respiration or production of oxygen and use a different approach. Oxygen sensors are used in oxygen analyzers which find extensive use in medical applications such as anesthesia monitors, respirators and oxygen concentrators. Oxygen sensors are also used in hypoxic air fire prevention systems to continuously monitor the oxygen concentration inside the protected volumes.