Underfloor heating and cooling is a form of central heating and cooling which achieves indoor climate control for thermal comfort using conduction, radiation and convection. Underfloor heating has a long history back into the Neoglacial and Neolithic periods. Archeological digs in Asia and the Aleutian islands of Alaska reveal how the inhabitants drafted smoke from fires through stone covered trenches which were excavated in basement ventilation system design pdf floors of their subterranean dwellings.
The hot smoke heated the floor stones which then radiated into the living spaces. These early forms have evolved into modern systems using fluid filled pipes or electrical cables and mats.
Below is a chronological overview of under floor heating from around the world. Evidence of “baked floors” are found foreshadowing early forms of kang and dikang “heated floor” later ondol meaning “warm stone” in Manchuria and Korea respectively. Korean fire hearth, was used both as kitchen range and heating stove. Asia continues to use conditioned surfaces but the application is lost in Europe where it is replaced by the open fire or rudimentary forms of the modern fireplace.
Anecdotal literary reference to radiant cooling system in the Middle East using snow packed wall cavities. More sophisticated and developed gudeul was found in some palaces and living quarters of upper-class people in Korea. Iran, Algeria, Turkey et al. Ondol continues to evolve in Asia.
The most advanced true ondol system was established. The fire furnace was moved outside and the room was entirely floored with ondol in Korea. Europe uses various forms of the fireplace with the evolution of drafting combustion products with chimneys.