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Cilliate undergoing cytokinesis, with the cleavage furrow being clearly visible. Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of...

Cilliate undergoing cytokinesis, with the cleavage furrow being clearly visible. Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells. Cytoplasmic division begins during or after the late stages of nuclear division in mitosis animal cell parts and functions pdf meiosis.

During cytokinesis the spindle apparatus partitions and transports duplicated chromatids into the cytoplasm of the separating daughter cells. It thereby ensures that chromosome number and complement are maintained from one generation to the next and that, except in special cases, the daughter cells will be functional copies of the parent cell. After the completion of the telophase and cytokinesis, each daughter cell enters the interphase of the cell cycle. This leaves very little for the resulting polar bodies, which in most species die without function, though they do take on various special functions in other species.

Plant cytokinesis differs from animal cytokinesis, partly because of the rigidity of plant cell walls. Instead of plant cells forming a cleavage furrow such as develops between animal daughter cells, a dividing structure known as the cell plate forms in the cytoplasm and grows into a new, doubled cell wall between plant daughter cells. Cytokinesis largely resembles the prokaryotic process of binary fission, but because of differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structures and functions, the mechanisms differ. Animal cell cytokinesis begins shortly after the onset of sister chromatid separation in the anaphase of mitosis.

The process can be divided to the following distinct steps: anaphase spindle reorganization, division plane specification, actin-myosin ring assembly and contraction, and abscission. Faithful partitioning of the genome to emerging daughter cells is ensured through the tight temporal coordination of the above individual events by molecular signaling pathways.

Animal cell cytokinesis starts with the stabilization of microtubules and reorganization of the mitotic spindle to form the central spindle. A number of different species including H. Drosophila cell types are incapable of forming a cleavage furrow without the central spindle, whereas in both C.

The process of mitotic spindle reorganization and central spindle formation is caused by the decline of CDK1 activity during anaphase. The decline of CDK1 activity at the metaphase-anaphase transition leads to dephosphorylating of inhibitory sites on multiple central spindle components. Originally inhibited by CDK1-mediated phosphorylation, PRC1 is now able to form a homodimer that selectively binds to the interface between antiparallel microtubules, facilitating spatial organization of the microtubules of the central spindle. Centralspindlin binds to the central spindle as higher-order clusters.

The centralspindlin cluster formation is promoted by phosphorylation of MLKP1 by Aurora B, a component of CPC. The central spindle may have multiple functions in cytokinesis including the control of cleavage furrow positioning, the delivery of membrane vesicles to the cleavage furrow, and the formation of the midbody structure that is required for the final steps of division. The second step of animal cell cytokinesis involves division plane specification and cytokinetic furrow formation. Precise positioning of the division plane between the two masses of segregated chromosomes is essential to prevent chromosome loss.