XML dialect for use with A. IPL was the first language developed for artificial intelligence. Lisp is a practical ai programming languages pdf notation for computer programs based on lambda calculus.
Linked lists are one of the Lisp language’s major data structures, and Lisp source code is itself made up of lists. As a result, Lisp programs can manipulate source code as a data structure, giving rise to the macro systems that allow programmers to create new syntax or even new domain-specific programming languages embedded in Lisp.
There are many dialects of Lisp in use today, among which are Common Lisp, Scheme, and Clojure. Smalltalk has been used extensively for simulations, neural networks, machine learning and genetic algorithms. It implements the purest and most elegant form of object-oriented programming using message passing.
Prolog is a declarative language where programs are expressed in terms of relations, and execution occurs by running queries over these relations. Prolog is particularly useful for symbolic reasoning, database and language parsing applications. Prolog is widely used in AI today. STRIPS is a language for expressing automated planning problem instances.
It expresses an initial state, the goal states, and a set of actions. Planner is a hybrid between procedural and logical languages. It gives a procedural interpretation to logical sentences where implications are interpreted with pattern-directed inference. POP-11 is a reflective, incrementally compiled programming language with many of the features of an interpreted language.